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pubblicato nel Settembre - Ottobre 2008 in Sport&Medicina - fascicolo n.5


  1. Galloway SDR, Maughan RJ. Effects of ambient temperature on the capacity to perform prolonged cycle exercise in man. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 1997; 29: 1240-9.

  2. Florida-James G, Donaldson K, Stone V. Athens 2004: the pollution climate and athletic performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 01-OCT-04.

  3. Nassis GP, Geladas ND. Potential Stress due to Environmental Conditions in the 2004 Summer Olympic Games, Journal of the Human-Environment System, 2002; 6: 39-45.

  4. Folinsbee LJ, SilvermanF, Shephard RJ. Decrease of maximum work performance following ozone exposure’, Journal of Applied Physiology, 1977; 42: 531-6.

  5. Gibbons S, Adams W. Combined effects of ozone exposure and ambient heat on exercising females. Journal of Applied Physiology, 1984; 57: 450-6.

  6. Comune di Roma, relazione annuale di qualità dell’aria anno 2004, Tratto dal sito Internet:

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  8. Raven PB, Drinkwater BL, Ruhling RO et al. Effect of carbon monoxide and peroxyacetyl-nitrate on man’s maximal aerobic capacity. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1974; 36: 288-93.

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  10. Schelegle E, Adams W. Reduced exercise time in competitive simulations consequent to low level ozone exposure. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 1986; 18: 408-14.

  11. Adams W, Schelegle E. Ozone and high ventilation effects on pulmonary function and endurance performance. Journal of Applied Physiology, 1983;5 3: 805-12.

  12. Blomberg A, Krishna MT, Helleday R et al. Persistent airway inflammation but accommodated anti-oxidant and lung function responses after repeated daily exposure to nitrogen dioxide. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1999; 159: 536-43.

  13. Zanasi A. Effetti dell’inquinamento atmosferico sull’apparato respiratorio, M.D. Medicinae Doctor. 2008; 20.

  14. Hazucha M, Folinsbee L, Seal E, Bromberg P. Lung function and response of healthy women after sequential exposures to NO2 and O3. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 1994; 50: 642-7.

  15. Gong H. How pollution and airborne allergens affect exercise. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1995; 23: 35-78.

  16. Health Effects Institute. Revised analysis of time-series studies of air pollution and health. Time-Series Review Analysis 2003 (available at:

  17. Pope CA. III Particulate pollution and health: a review of the Utah valley experience. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology. 1996; 6: 23-34.

  18. Brook R, Brook J, Rajagopalan S. Air pollution: the 'heart' of the problem. Current Hypertension Reports, 2003; 5: 32-39.

  19. Gilmour P, Brown D, Lindsay T et al. Adverse health effects of PM 10 : involvement of iron in the generation of hydroxyl radical. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1996; 53: 817-22.

  20. Brown D, Donaldson K, Stone V. Role of calcium in the induction of TNF [alpha] expression by macro-phages on exposure to ultrafine particles. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 2002; 46 (suppl. 1): 219-22.

  21. Donaldson K, Brown D, Clouter A et al. The pulmonary toxicology of ultrafine particles. Journal of Aerosol Medicine, 2002; 15: 213-20.

  22. Donaldson K, Stone V, Seaton A, MacNee W. Ambient particle inhalation and the cardiovascular system: potential mechanisms. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2001; 109 (suppl. 4): 523-7.

  23. Soukup J, Becker S. Human alveolar macrophage responses to air pollution particulates are associated with insoluble components of coarse material, including particulate endotoxin. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 2001; 171: 20-6.

  24. Baeza-Squiban A, Bonvallot V, Boland S, Marano F. Airborne particles evoke an inflammatory response in human airway epithelium: activation of transcription factors. Cell Biology and Toxicology, 1999; 15: 375-80.

  25. Nishioka T, Ohtaka K, Hashimoto N, Onojima H. Measurement and evaluation of the indoor thermal environment in a large domed stadium; Energy and Buildings, 2000; 32: 217–23

  26. Lee SC, Chan LY, Chiu MY. Indoor and outdoor air quality investigation al 14 public places in Hong Kong; Environment International, 1999; 25: 443-50.

  27. Abd El-Wahab M. Adel El-Kadia, Mona A. Fannyb; Architectural designs and thermal performances of school sports-halls; Applied Energy, 2003; 76: 289-303.

  28. Chen Huanga, Zhijun Zoua, Meiling Lia, Xin Wanga, Wei Lib, Wugang Huanga, Jiangang Yanga, Xueqin Xiaob; Measurements of indoor thermal environment and energy analysis in a large space building in typical Seasons; Building and Environment 2007: 42: 1869-77.

  29. Héry M, Hecht G, Gerber JM, Gendre JC, Hubert G, Rebuffaud J. Exposure to chloramines in the atmosphere of indoor swimming pools. Ann Occup Hyg 1995; 39: 427-39.

  30. Massin N, Bohadana AB, Wild P, Héry M, Toamain JP, Hubert G; Respiratory symptoms and bronchial responsiveness in lifeguards exposed to nitrogen trichloride in indoor swimming pools. Occup. Environ. Med 1998; 55: 258-63.

  31. Pelham T W, Holt L E, Moss M A. Exposure to carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in enclosed ice arenas; Occup. Environ. Med 2002; 59: 224-33.

  32. Raimo O. Salonen, Arto S et al. Health risk assessment of indoor air pollution in Finnish ice arenas; Environment International 2008; 34: 51-7.

  33. Hackney JD, Linn WS, Mohler JG, Collier CR. Adaptation to short-term respiratory effects of ozone in men exposed repeatedly, Journal of Applied Physiology 1977; 43: 82-5.

  34. Linn W, Avol E, Shamoo D et al. A dose-response study of healthy, heavily exercising men exposed to ozone at concentrations near the ambient air quality standard. Toxicology and Industrial Health 1986; 2: 99-112.

  35. Carlisle, A, Sharp, N. Exercise and outdoor ambient outdoor air pollution. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2001; 35: 214-22.

  36. Samet J, Hatch G, Horstman D et al. Effect of antioxidant supplementation on ozone-induced lung injury in human subjects. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2001; 164: 819-25.

  37. Blomberg, A. Airway inflammatory and antioxidant response to oxidative and particulate air pollutants--experimental exposure studies in humans. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 2000; 30: 310-7.

  38. Blomberg A, Krishna MT, Helleday R et al. Persistent airway inflammation but accommodated anti-oxidant and lung function responses after repeated daily exposure to nitrogen dioxide. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 1999; 159: 536-43.

  39. CONI, Istituto di Medicina e Scienza dello Sport; comunicazione personale, 2008.

  40. Folinsbee L, Bedi J, Hovarth S. Respiratory responses in humans repeatedly exposed to low concentrations of ozone. American Review of Respiratory Disease 1980; 121: 431-9.

  41. Folinsbee L, Bedi J, Hovarth S. Pulmonary function changes after 1 h continuous heavy exercise in 0.21 ppm ozone. Journal of Applied Physiology 1984; 57: 984-8.

  42. Folinsbee L, Bedi J, Hovarth S. Pulmonary response to threshold levels of sulphur dioxide (1.0 ppm) and ozone (0.3 ppm). Journal of Applied Physiology 1985; 58: 1783-7.

  43. Schelegle ES, Adams WC. ‘Reduced exercise time in competitive simulations consequent to low level ozone exposure’, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1986; 18: 408-14.

  44. Silverman F, Folinsbee L, Barnard J, Shephard R. Pulmonary function changes in ozone interactions of concentration and ventilation. Journal of Applied Physiology 1976; 41: 859-64.